Mugu District is located in Karnali Zone of the Mid-western Development Region of Nepal. It borders with Dolpa district of Karnali to the East, Bajura district of Seti Zone to the West, Humla of Karnali Zone and Tibbet of People Republic of China to the North and Kalikot and Jumla of Karnali Zone to the South. The district has 24 VDCs, 9 Ilakas and 1 constituency area. Moreover, the district is also divided into 4 broad geographical areas; Khatyad area, Soru area, Gam area and Karan area. The district, with Gamgadhi as its district headquarters, covers an area of 3,103 km2 and has a population of 55286 as per census 2011. The district lies in the High-Hills. The lowest elevation point is 1,201 meter and the highest elevation point is 6,717 meter from mean sea level. Mugu Karnali, Humla Karnali and Khatyad are the major rivers in the district. The biggest lake called Rara Tal is located in this district. As a result of the elevation differences, the district has four different types of climate. The annual rainfall is about 706 mm and temperatures vary from 0 ºC to 30 ºC. Only 5 % of total areas are cultivable in Mugu district. Due to low level of agricultural production, the majority of the households face acute food shortages for a large part of the year.
According to the National Census 2011, the total population of the district is 55,286 comprising 27,261 female (49%) and 28,025 male (51%) residing in 9,619 households. Mugu district has an average population density of around 18 people per square km. The average family size is 6.1. The average literacy rate is about 49% (38% female and 60% male are literate). Mugu district has a multi ethnic composition with Chhetri, Thakuri, Brahman, Tamang Sherpa Bhote Lama, Damai, Kami, Newar, Kumal, Sunar, Bitalu and Yogi. The common language is Nepali (89%) followed by Bhot (10%).
The district has access to the Jumla through Jumla – Gamgadhi road which is currently being constructed by DRILP under DDC and by DOR. A 65 km feeder road between the district headquarters and Sukadhik, near to Bajura border is currently also being planned to construct by DOR. The another feeder road with 20 km between Sukhadhik and Dulachaur which passes through the border of Bajura and Mugu districts is also under planned which ultimately link up the district headquarter. The Gamgadhi-Nagchelagna road with 85 km length is being also under planning stage by DoR as regional road. This road connects Gamgadhi with Tibbet and passes five VDCs of eastern Mugu.